NHBP Tribal History

NHBP Historical Timeline Overview
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NHBP Historical Timeline Overview

An overview of the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi historical timeline.

1441 – The Council of Three Fires Splits into Separate Groups
1500

1441 – The Council of Three Fires Splits into Separate Groups

In the early 1500’s, “The Council of Three Fires” split off into three separate groups

1634 – First Recorded Encounter with Europeans
1634

1634 – First Recorded Encounter with Europeans

A small group of Potawatomi meet the first European

1640-1701 – Beaver Wars (French and Iroquois Wars) Force Relocation to Door County, Wisconsin
1652

1640-1701 – Beaver Wars (French and Iroquois Wars) Force Relocation to Door County, Wisconsin

French and Iroquois Wars (a.k.a., “Beaver Wars”) Force the Potawatomi to Relocate to Door County, Wisconsin  

1687 – Potawatomi Migration Back to Michigan
1687

1687 – Potawatomi Migration Back to Michigan

Great Lakes Algonquin and French Drive Iroquois Back to New York | Potawatomi Migration Back to Michigan

1712 – Bands of Potawatomi Settle at Fort Pontchartrain on the Detroit River
1712

1712 – Bands of Potawatomi Settle at Fort Pontchartrain on the Detroit River

The Potawatomi came to Detroit between the years of 1712 and 1714, temporarily settling between the Wyandot (Huron) and French forts.

1763 – Detroit Potawatomi Leave Detroit and Migrate South and West
1763

1763 – Detroit Potawatomi Leave Detroit and Migrate South and West

The Detroit Potawatomi left their villages on the Detroit River in October 1763 and spread their villages to the south and west, setting up various hunting camps.

1795 – Treaty of Greenville | First Recognition as Sovereign Entity
1795

1795 – Treaty of Greenville | First Recognition as Sovereign Entity

Signed August 3rd, 1795, the Treaty of Greenville followed negotiations after the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.

1807 – Treaty of Detroit
1807

1807 – Treaty of Detroit

The Huron Potawatomi are involved in the signing of the 1807 Treaty of Detroit in which 8 million acres are ceded to the government for roughly 1.2 cents per acre.

1821 – Treaty of Chicago
1821

1821 – Treaty of Chicago

The Potawatomi signed the first Treaty of Chicago on August 29th, 1821, ceding much of their remaining land to the U.S. Federal Government. Similar to the 1807 Treaty of Detroit, this treaty impacted the band of Huron Potawatomi. Most settled on a four-mile square tract of land reserved under this..Read More

1827 – Treaty of St. Joseph
1827

1827 – Treaty of St. Joseph

As part of the Treaty of St. Joseph, signed September 19th, 1827, the Potawatomi ceded to the U.S. Government settlements along the River Rouge and River Raisin in southeast Michigan and areas in southwest Michigan around the Kalamazoo River. The Nottawaseppi Reservation was also enlarged to 99 Sections.

1830 – The Indian Removal Act
1830

1830 – The Indian Removal Act

While the Huron Potawatomi, and other Potawatomi, generally maintained peaceful relations with their new non-Indian neighbors, the increased pressure from settlers, many of whom illegally entered Indian lands, often resulted in violent conflict between settlers and the resident Indian tribes. The solution championed by Andrew Jackson and others in the..Read More

1833 – Treaty of Chicago | 1838 – Trail of Death
1833

1833 – Treaty of Chicago | 1838 – Trail of Death

Unfortunately, the Nottawaseppi Reservation was a momentary home in Michigan. In the 1833 Treaty of Chicago, signed September 26, 1833, the Potawatomi (including the Nottawaseppi Huron Band) ceded the Nottawaseppi Reservation and other lands located in Michigan to the United States. The treaty required the Potawatomi to remove west to..Read More

1839 – John Moguago Becomes Chief
1839

1839 – John Moguago Becomes Chief

“Young John” Moguago, son of “Old” Moguago and grandson of Mogoagon, emerged as the head chief of the band upon the death of Sau-au-quett.

1840 – Forced Relocation
1840

1840 – Forced Relocation

On October 15th, 1840, the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi forcibly began their long trek to a reservation in Kansas.

1842 – Return to the Nottawaseppi Prairie
1842

1842 – Return to the Nottawaseppi Prairie

In the spring of 1842, the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi returned to the Nottawaseppi Prairie.

1845 – Purchase of Pine Creek Reservation (June 10, 1845)
1845

1845 – Purchase of Pine Creek Reservation (June 10, 1845)

Between 1845-1848, a number of NHBP members, estimated to number between 40 to 60 persons, pooled 120 acres of land was purchased with annuity money owed to the “Potawatomi of Huron” from the 1807 Treaty of Detroit with the U.S. Government and used this money to purchase 120 acres of..Read More

1845-1850 – Methodist Missionary Activity | Impact on the Pine Creek Settlement
1847

1845-1850 – Methodist Missionary Activity | Impact on the Pine Creek Settlement

During the mid to later 1840’s, the Pine Creek settlement experienced the beginnings of Methodist missionary activity. The resulting founding of a church at Pine Creek would do much to shape the settlement for the next century.

1863-1864 – Death of Chief John Moguago | Phineas Pamptopee Becomes Chief
1864

1863-1864 – Death of Chief John Moguago | Phineas Pamptopee Becomes Chief

John Moguago died in 1863.  He was buried on the reservation cemetery with his grave marked in the traditional manner by an oak tree (still standing as of 2018).  The position of Chief was transferred to his uncle, “Old” Pamptopee and then a year later, in 1864, to Phineas Pamptopee.

1889 – Annuity Commutation | Establishment of East Indiantown
1889

1889 – Annuity Commutation | Establishment of East Indiantown

In 1889, the $400 annual annuity the NHBP had been collecting since 1845, from the 1807 Treaty of Detroit, was compounded for a lump sum. Individual tracts of land were purchased, resulting in the establishment of East Indiantown.

1900-1930 – Population at Pine Creek Reservation Increases Gradually
1900

1900-1930 – Population at Pine Creek Reservation Increases Gradually

Between 1900 and 1930, the NHBP saw a gradual population increase, which can be directly traced to the control of childhood diseases such as diphtheria and measles and the gradual extermination of tuberculosis in the adult population

1904 – Creation of the Taggart Roll
1904

1904 – Creation of the Taggart Roll

This Taggart Roll is considered the “base roll” for the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi’s present Tribal membership; present members must show that they descend from persons listed on the Taggart Roll.

1904-1918 – Decline of East Indiantown | Rise of New Indiantown
1914

1904-1918 – Decline of East Indiantown | Rise of New Indiantown

During the years between 1904 and World War I, many of the families who had bought land in the East Indiantown area sold the property.  The settlement again became primarily focused on the original Pine Creek 120 acres and a new town, about two miles from the old settlement.

1914 – Stephen Pamptopee Becomes Chief
1914

1914 – Stephen Pamptopee Becomes Chief

Phineas Pamptopee, who had been chief for 50 years, died in 1914.  The selected chief for the next ten years was his youngest son, Stephen Pamptopee.

1926 – Samuel Mandoka Becomes Chief
1926

1926 – Samuel Mandoka Becomes Chief

The strong influential role of Samuel Mandoka within the Pine Creek settlement began during the lifetime of Steven Pamptopee. At Steven’s death in 1926, Samuel was not formally designated to the “office” as chief but was essentially appointed by consensus of the residents of the Pine Creek Reservation because of..Read More

1929-1939 – Great Depression Begins | Many Residents Move Away from Pine Creek Reservation
1929

1929-1939 – Great Depression Begins | Many Residents Move Away from Pine Creek Reservation

The relative prosperity of the settlement in the later nineteenth century fell prey to the general agricultural decline of the post-World-War-I era and was intensified by the Great Depression.

1934 – Indian Reorganization Act Signed | NHBP Denied Federal Reaffirmation
1934

1934 – Indian Reorganization Act Signed | NHBP Denied Federal Reaffirmation

The Indian Reorganization Act (“IRA,” “Wheeler-Howard Act”), signed June 18th, 1934, was intended to encourage tribes to assume more control of their governance and help change the aforementioned “fundamental impracticabilities of law,” which was resulting in so many problems in Indian Country. The press signaled this act as an “Indian New..Read More

1934 – Leadership by Committee Begins
1934

1934 – Leadership by Committee Begins

Albert Mackety and Levi Pamp provided the key political leadership of Pine Creek for the next 40 years.

1940’s and 1950’s – World War II | Population of Indiantown Doubles
1945

1940’s and 1950’s – World War II | Population of Indiantown Doubles

Some NHBP members joined the armed services during World War II, while others took jobs in urban industries. During these years, several men worked in factories in Battle Creek or Detroit; women also took industrial jobs.

1950’s – Pattern of Work Off the Pine Creek Reservation Grows
1951

1950’s – Pattern of Work Off the Pine Creek Reservation Grows

After World War II, the pattern of work off the reservation continued to grow.  For many of the NHBP, this period marked the first participation in the urban labor market.  By the end of the War, factory employment and other urban jobs had largely replaced the earlier dependence on seasonal..Read More

1960’s – Number of Tribal Members Living on Pine Creek Dwindles
1961

1960’s – Number of Tribal Members Living on Pine Creek Dwindles

By 1960, most of the group’s members were no longer living at Pine Creek but had moved to cities in southern Michigan that provided employment opportunities. Continuing a trend to seek off-reservation employment that had begun in the 1940s, more and more of the young adults moved out of the..Read More

1970’s – Formation of Huron Potawatomi, Inc. | Development of Political Organization
1970

1970’s – Formation of Huron Potawatomi, Inc. | Development of Political Organization

The decade of the 1970’s proved to be a pivotal period in the development of the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi’s political organization.

1970’s – Second Attempt at Federal Reaffirmation | Difficulties with BIA Begin
1972

1970’s – Second Attempt at Federal Reaffirmation | Difficulties with BIA Begin

In the spring of 1972, the NHBP decided to make their first concerted effort since 1934 at seeking federal reaffirmation. This effort continued for several years with little progress despite considerable effort.

1987

1980’s – Continued Difficulties in the Quest for Federal Reaffirmation

Between 1980 and 1986, one major focus of HPI’s efforts was the preparation of the Federal acknowledgment petition for consideration under a new administrative process established under regulations adopted by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Those regulations required tribes, whose government-to-government relations with the United States had been improperly terminated,..Read More

1995 – Federal Reaffirmation Achieved | A Major Turning Point in Tribal History
1995

1995 – Federal Reaffirmation Achieved | A Major Turning Point in Tribal History

On December 19, 1995, the United States government restored “federal recognition” to the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi. Federal reaffirmation was a defining point in the NHBP history and the Pine Creek Reservation. It acknowledged a unique and interconnected group of people, allowing access to needed government programs unavailable to..Read More

1999 – 2015 – Improvements to the Pine Creek Reservation | Government Services Expand | New Land Purchased
1999

1999 – 2015 – Improvements to the Pine Creek Reservation | Government Services Expand | New Land Purchased

The NHBP has accomplished a great deal since federal reaffirmation in 1995. The Pine Creek Reservation has become a secure homeland quickly developing into a first-class Tribal community with a beautiful Government Center, Department of Public Works, Community & Health Center, energy-efficient homes, and Justice Center. Education, health, housing, and..Read More

2009-2017 – FireKeepers Casino and Hotel
2009

2009-2017 – FireKeepers Casino and Hotel

After more than 10 years of planning, strategy, and vision, the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi opened the doors to FireKeepers Casino on August 5, 2009.

2011 – Waséyabek Development Company Formed
2011

2011 – Waséyabek Development Company Formed

Waséyabek Development Company, LLC (WDC) is a 100% Tribally-owned holding company that manages the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi’s non-gaming economic development activities.