In 1900, the federal census taken in Athens Township, Calhoun County, Michigan, placed the Pine Creek settlement on special “Indian Population” census sheets, different from the rest of the township.

At the time, there were 21 households living in 20 dwellings, with a total population of 68 persons; 25 were under the age of 21. These distinct “Indian Population” census sheets provided considerable additional information, including the individual’s Indian name (if it was different from the English name), tribal affiliation, and blood quantum (blood quantum is the total percentage of an individual’s Indian blood, which may derive from more than one tribe). All persons at Pine Creek were largely recorded as Potawatomi, paying taxes, having U.S. citizenship, and having a fixed residence.

Between 1900 and 1994, the NHBP population increased exponentially. During the first third of the twentieth century, the gradual increase can be attributed primarily to the control of such childhood diseases like diphtheria and measles as well as the gradual extermination of tuberculosis in the adult population.


United States, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs Branch of Acknowledgement and Research, et al. “Summary Under the Criteria and Evidence for Proposed Finding Huron Potawatomi, Inc.” HPI-V001-D004,