Chief Samuel Mandoka died at age 71; he was succeeded not by a chief, but by a committee. Albert Mackety and Levi Pamp provided the key political leadership of Pine Creek for the next 40 years. Levi Pamp was of the Pamptopee family which dropped the “-topee” from their last name around this point in time. Both Albert and Levi had worked closely with Chiefs Stephen Pamptopee and Samuel Mandoka for many years in both secular and ecclesiastical matters.

At the time of Samuel Mandoka’s death, his second-oldest son, Grover Mandoka, told the local newspaper, “There is no need for a tribal head. We live and work as individuals, the same as any white family. If the time should come when, as a tribe, we should want representation in Washington or elsewhere, the surviving members undoubtedly would get together and designate one of their number to represent them. Until then, we shall continue as a chiefless tribe.”



Rodwan, John, and Virginia Anewishki. Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi, A People in Progress. Pine Creek Reservation, 2009.

United States, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs Branch of Acknowledgement and Research, et al. “Summary Under the Criteria and Evidence for Proposed Finding Huron Potawatomi, Inc.” HPI-V001-D004,